Ethical Theories Comparison Chart:Hu245 Unit 2 Assignment Ethical Theories Comparison Chart Examples

Hu245 Unit 2 Assignment Ethical Theories Comparison Chart Examples

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

HU245: Unit 2 Assignment – Theories of Morality

 

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Utilitarianism Ethical Egoism
How is “good” Determined An act that produces the greatest happiness and promotes the most good for the most people. An act that promotes the individual’s long term interest.
Most Noted Philosopher(s) Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill Ayn Rand, Thomas Hobbes
Major Strengths Seeks to maximize happiness and benefit all. Tries to encourage independence.
Major Weaknesses One can’t always predict results or please everyone. One can be viewed as selfish.
Ethics of Care Kantianism
How is “good” Determined An act that nurtures the connections among those closest to each other. An act that is based on reason and duty, and would be considered ethical if everyone did the same.
Most Noted Philosopher(s) Carol Gilligan, Nel Noddings Immanuel Kant

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

Major Strengths We focus on those we love/who are closest to us. Emphasizes the rights of the individual.
Major Weaknesses Threatens to devolve into tribalism. Emphasizes duty over the desire to do good.
Prima Facie Duties Divine Command Theory
How is “good” Determined Adhere to prima facie duties unless solemn reasons or circumstances say to do otherwise. Adhere to the commands of God/religious beliefs, regardless of the consequences that might ensue.
Most Noted Philosopher(s) Sir William David Ross Joan of Arc
Major Strengths Sets principles yet recognizes outcomes of actions. Provides moral law and motivation to follow it.
Major Weaknesses When is one duty stronger than another? Evil has been done by so called “religious” people.
Virtue Theory
How is “good” Determined Focus not on making good decisions but making good people who will decide correctly.
Most Noted Philosophers Aristotle, Confucius, McIntyre
Major Strengths Avoids problems/unifies emotions and reasoning.
Major Weaknesses Very difficult to apply to specific questions.

 

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HU245 Unit 2 Assignment

 

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Utilitarianism Ethical Egoism Ethics of Care Kantianism Prima Facie Duties Divine Command Theory Virtue Theory
How is “good” Determined Contribution to overall utility in maximizing happiness and pleasure. Everyone ought to act in my own best self-interest. Holding interpersonal relationships highly Respecting rational beings and having dignity Treating everything equal Morality is somehow dependent upon God. Morality comes by the obedience of God’s commands By bettering their self-characteristics
Most Noted Philosopher(s) Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill Epicurusm Ayn Rand, Jesse Kalin, and John Hospers Carol Gilligan Immanuel Kant William David Ross Plato, Kai Nielson, and J. L. Mackie Aristotle
Major Strengths It is straightforward and based on the single principle of lowering pain and higher pleasure and happiness. Aims towards a happy life. This encourages individual freedom and responsibility. It is easier to determine self-interest Recognizes weaknesses in moral theories and emotions in moral reasoning Humans are morally autonomous, authors of their own morality. The categorical imperative promotes quality. This theory promotes an equal and safe environment The theory commnds free humanity from having to laboriously discover what is proper human conduct Encourages high levels of moral behavior. People learn to be moral by practice
Major Weaknesses Providing support for ethical egoism, and that can be very difficult what will turn out to be good consequences for others. Everyone sees “good” and “bad” differently. The theories apply only to one individual and cannot be laid down for humanity in general. Not being able to apply to a group of people or everyone is a real setback. Some critics think that by accepting the theory, one may be raising female values above male values.  Acting out of a sense of “duty for duty’s sakes” is cold and impersonal. Duty without guidance from human sympathy can lead to rigid moral fanacticism. Someone’s way of treating someone equally could be the complete opposite of someone else’s This theory, since it based upon God is very controversial Which virtues are the most important? The virtues can become conflicts.

 

Ethics: Theory and Practice (Updated Edition) 11the Edition

 

 

 

HU245 Unit 2 Assignment

 

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Utilitarianism Ethical Egoism Ethics of Care Kantianism Prima Facie Duties Divine Command Theory Virtue Theory
How is “good” Determined Its determined by constructing the utmost joy and encouraged the greatest good for the most people. A piece that encourages a person’s long-term welfares. An item that fosters the connections amongst those closest to each other. It’s constructed on purpose and duty; considered to be ethical if everyone did the same. We must adhere to obligations unless circumstances tell us not too. If you believe in God, anything you do is right, and everyone is good. Described by oral distinction and emphasis on the good charisma of people
Most Noted Philosopher(s) John Stuart Mill, Jeremy Bentham Thomas Hobbes, Ayn Rand Carol Gilligan, Ned Noddings. Immanuel Kant Sir William David Ross Joan of Arch Aristotle
Major Strengths -Pursues to make the most of happiness and benefit everyone.

-Upfront in the aspect of pain, pleasure, and happiness.

-Tries to encourage

Freedom.

-Promotes good lifestyles for human beings to follow if they want to be moral.

-Promotes you to focus on the people we love and are closest to us.

-Defines the understandings as diverse, but similarly binding.

 

-Underlines the privileges of the individual.

-Delivers common moral strategies.

-It can provide a guideline for human rights and treat everyone fair.

-Operates on principles that everyone should follow.

-You can shadow commands without fear of consequence of anything else.

-If a “Higher Being” is the source of morality, then its teachings will certainly be moral.

-Following virtues makes for better individuals and motivates personal relationships. -Practical theory, dependable with human nature.
Major Weaknesses -One can’t continuously expect outcomes or please every person.

– Its also immeasurable in the fact that you cant always compare feelings.

-People can view you as being selfish for being so detached from others.

-Tough to decide all consequences, unpredictable.

-Threatens to devolve into tribalism.

-Generates an one-sided ethical structure between the sexes.

Kind of harsh environment, people don’t look out for one another.

-Inconsistent moral laws, exception to moral laws.

-Difficult to understand what obligation takes precedence over another.

– No concrete evidence to support Ross’s logic.

-Hard for some to believe in; is it even reliable?

-It is extremely difficult to understand a “Higher Beings” teachings.

-It is restricted to helping individuals and not the overall population

– Lacks effective ethical guidelines; Aristotle’s Basic Human Function.

 

 

References:

  • Thiroux/Krasemann, 2015.  Ethics: Theory and Practice.  Updated 11th Edition.  Boston: Pearson

 

 

 

HU245 Unit 2 Assignment

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Utilitarianism Ethical Egoism Ethics of Care Kantianism Prima Facie Duties Divine Command Theory Virtue Theory
How is “good” Determined  

The moral rightness (or wrongness) of actions and policies

 

 

Utilitarianism defines the Good as pleasure without pain.

Human ought to act in their own self-interest,  

Nothing was good in itself except a good will.

 

All human beings must obey in a general way before any considerations enter into the picture.  

What is good and right is what this being has stated is good and right.

 

If one believes there is a God, goddess, or gods, and they have set up a series of moral commands, then an action is right and people are good if they obey these commands, regardless of the consequences.

 

 

 

Aspires to develop good people and good human communities.

 

Most Noted Philosopher(s)  

Jeremy Bentham

and John Stuart Mill.

 

 

Epicurus, Ayn Rand, Jesse Kalin, and John Hospers, among others.

 

 

Carol Gilligan

 

 

Immanuel Kant

 

 

Sir William David Ross

 

Thomas Aquinas, Robert Adams, and Philip Quinn Aristotle
Major Strengths  

Utilitarianism requires that we consider everyone’s pleasure, not just our own.

 

There is more to life than physical pleasure.

 

 

Cannot be equated with selfishness, nor should it necessarily be equated with having a big ego or being conceited.

 

 

It is possible by reasoning alone to set up valid absolute moral rules that have the same force as indisputable mathematical truths.

 

 

If it feels good—do it and Do your own thing.

 

Major Weaknesses  

There is not enough time to calculate the effects of our actions on the general happiness. Therefore it is useless.

 

Utilitarianism implies that we should always act in order to

Maximize happiness; this is too strict. It is asking too much of

people to be always motivated to promote the general happiness

 

 

There seems to be no clear criteria either for choosing which duties are prima facie or for deciding how to distinguish among them after they have been established.

 

 

Are inherent in the lack of rational foundation for the existence of some sort of supernatural being or beings and the further lack of proof that the support of such a being or beings is enough to make rational and useful the ethical system in question.

 

 

HU245 Unit 2 Assignment

 

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Utilitarianism Ethical Egoism Ethics of Care Kantianism Prima Facie Duties Divine Command Theory Virtue Theory
How is “good” Determined What will bring about a good or desirable ending. What it the greatest good for the majority. In Ethical Egoism I would do what is in my best interest. Men are concerned with Justice and rights. Women are concerned with generosity. A person’s duty to act within a set of moral rules regardless of what happens. A person must follow a set of rules but that person should think about the end result. In order to be good than a person must follow supreme beings or the universes rules. Having excellence and improving ones character.
Most Noted Philosopher(s) Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill Ayn Rand Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg Immanuel Kant Sir William David Ross Joan of Arc Aristotle and Confucius.
Major Strengths It looks at what is best for everyone. It thinks on a large scale; such as, globally, or the community as a whole, or what is good for the country. The thought that a person should be responsible and self sufficient and allows others to do the same. It works at helping to explain that men and women need to look at how the other gender think and strengthen their weaknesses. Being able to set up moral rules that are based on reason and logic. All rules must be logical and consistent. Following a set of rules before knowing all the particulars of the situation. When a person follows the dictates of their higher power they are acting correctly regardless of the consequences. This theory is based on improving oneself both from within and in the person’s environment.
Major Weaknesses Sometimes in saying the greatest good for the masses, the minority gets left out. What may be in my best interest may not be in my friends’ best interest, so whose interest do we act in? There is an inconsistency. It can easily be said that men are superior to women and that gender makes a person right or wrong. Conflicting duties. Under this theory nothing can be contradictory and we cannot obey 2 laws that contradict. What is the basis for the Prima Facie duties? There is no proof of a supreme being, even if there is whose ideology is the correct one to follow. How is the model of virtue selected and who does the average person model their life after.

 

 

 

HU245 Unit 2 Assignment

 

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Utilitarianism Ethical Egoism Ethics of Care Kantianism Prima Facie Duties Divine Command Theory Virtue Theory
How is “good” Determined The greatest good for the greatest number.

Perform act that will bring greatest good to all.

Based on the prescriptive approach.

Everyone should act in own self-interest.

What is morally right or wrong.

Importance of response

Reasoning alone will set up moral rules Duties that must be adhered to unless circumstances tell us not to. If I believe there is a God, any action is right and people are good regardless of consequences Defined by oral excellence.

Emphasis on the good character of people

Most Noted Philosopher(s) Jeremy Bentham

John Stuart Mill

Ayn Rand

Jesse Kalin

Alejandro Tugender

Carol Gilligan

Kant Sir

William David Ross

Joan of Arc Aristotle
Major Strengths One must approach each situation individually.

Decisions are based on intuition.

People can appear humble.

More in self-interest to be selfless.

Attention to detail in situations to promote interest.

Consideration measured by vulnerability.

Logically consistent

Universalizable

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

Does not believe that a conseque-nce makes an action right or wrong.

Telling the truth

Making up for what we do to others.

 I should obey a supernatural being regardless of consequences

What is good and right is stated by that being.

The end of human life is happiness.

Humans have the capacity fro goodness.

Major Weaknesses This theory is based on consequences.

Morality cannot be rationalized.

This theory is inconsistent.

 

Hard to take moral advice.

 

 

Rests on the understanding of relationships.

Majority was feministic views, only one view point.

Act is immoral unless authorized.

Some rules have questionable moral values.

Being able to tell the difference between prima facie or not.

To know or not to know whether something is true.

Loss of life

Accept the consequences

Based on assumptions that are hard to prove.

Morality in innate.

 

 

 

HU245 Unit 2 Assignment

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Utilitarianism Ethical Egoism Ethics of Care Kantianism Prima Facie Duties Divine Command Theory Virtue Theory
How is “good” Determined Good is determined by the action that will bring the greatest good for all.

 

Good is looking out for your own self-interest.

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

Men and Women Are Different When It Comes to Ethical Decision Making Does not depend on the consequences of actions, but on whether they fulfill our duty. There are certain binding conditional duties to determine what it is we ought to do. actions are morally good because of their being commanded by God. Moral obligation is obedience to God’s commands; what is morally right is what God desires. Character based ethics. This type of moral theory is all about becoming a certain kind of person. Its concern, ideally, is the development of human excellence.

A good person is someone who lives virtuously – who possesses and lives the virtues.

 

Most Noted Philosopher(s) Jeremy Bentham & John Stewart Mill Epicurus, Ayn Rand, Jesse Kalin, and John Hospers Carol Gilligan Lawrence Kohlberg Immanuel Kant Sir William David Ross William of Ockham, St Augustine, Duns Scotus, and John Calvin Aristotle, Confucius, Alasdair MacIntyre,Roger Ames, Henry Rosemont, St. Augustine, Ben Franklin
Major Strengths Fewer Conflicts if the majority is happy.

It is simple, without complex rules.

It is easier to determine self-interest.

It promotes individual freedom and responsibility.

Recognizes weaknesses in moral theories and emotions in moral reasoning.

Recognizes need to rectify imbalances/inequities.

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

Clarity. Absolute and easy to apply.

Creates a distinction between duty and inclination.

Bad actions may have good consequences.

Do not necessitate the difficult task of computing consequences for a moral action. Provide, in their rule form, a strong set of moral guides.

Avoid the pitfall of a cost–benefit analysis approach to morality.

Moral duties are absolute.
Preserves the sovereignty of God.
Provides moral law as well as motivation to follow it.
Holistic – Unlike other ethical theories that regard emotions as dangerous to morality, It considers the whole person, including their emotions, qualities of character and practical skills.

Agent-Centered – other ethical ethics are concerned with obligation or consequence. Virtue theory examines the character of the moral agent.

It regards Human relationships as important and stresses the need to look after those close to you. It allows people to make ethical decisions based on his or her own moral well-being.

 

 

Major Weaknesses It is hard to know what would make most happy.

It is impossible to know what the consequence will be.

Communities are not self-sufficient.

Complete self-interest cannot be served.

Difficult to define, contexts difficult to identify. Moral emotions difficult to quantify/define.

Lack of agreement between theorists and framework

Promotes rule breaking due to sometimes severe consequence.

Situations are not the same, so morality cannot be so absolute.

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples Makes morality into something arbitrary.
A lot of evil has been done by religious people in the name of religion.
Religious morality closes off dialogue, can leads to group intolerance and threaten church-state separation.
Broad – there is no single criteria for goodness.

It only concentrates on a limited number on virtues and therefore is not able to focus on the big picture.

Vague – there is no clear system for making moral choices

 

 

 

HU245 Unit 2 Assignment

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Consequential Theories

Ethical Egoism Utilitarianism Ethics of Care
How is “Good” Determined ·    Based on individual morality ·    “Everyone should perform that act or follow that moral rule that will bring about the greatest good (or happiness) for everyone concerned.” (Thiroux, 2014) ·    By the joint ethical decision of a man and a woman
Most Noted Philosopher(s) ·    Epicurus

·    Ayn Rand

·    Jeremy Bentham

·    John Stuart Mill

·    Carol Gilligan
Major Strengths ·    Moral obligation not to harm yourself

·    Universal ethical egoism “states as its basic principle that everyone should always act in his or her own best self-interest” (Thiroux, 2014)

·    It is easier to determine self-interest than to worry about others interests

·    Hive mind – people work together to determine the best outcome for all people instead of one’s self

·    Rule Utilitarianism – “Everyone should always establish and follow that rule or those rules that will bring about the greatest good for all concerned” (Thiroux, 2014)

·    Ethics of care identifies the emotional weaknesses of both sex’s and requires both to work together

·    Requires wisdom and not just a calculation of consequences

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

Major Weaknesses ·    Willing to harm others

·    Individual and Personal ethical egoism focus on self rather than society

·    Open to interpretation of right and wrong

·    Relies heavily on isolation in order to be functional

·    “No absolute rules against killing, stealing, lying, and so on” (Thiroux, 2014)

·    Difficult to teach the younger generation when there are no rules or guidelines

·    Because of diversity it is nearly impossible to make everyone happy

·    There is no definition of what is right or wrong other than an agreement between the sex’s

·    Concerned more with context rather than principles

 

 

 

Non-Consequential Theories

Divine Command Theory (DCT) Kantianism Prima Facie Duties
How is “Good” Determined ·    God/Higher Power

·    Bible/religious readings

·    “Act in accordance with moral rules, laws, or principles regardless of interests or consequences.” (Thiroux, 2014) ·    Always do that act in accord with the stronger prima facie duty

·    Always do that act that has the greatest degree of prima facie rightness over prima faciewrongness. (Thiroux, 2014)

Most Noted Philosopher(s) ·    Plato

·    Thomas Aquinas (Austin, n.d.)

·    Immanuel Kant ·    Sir William David Ross
Major Strengths ·    “Provides an objective metaphysical foundation for morality” (Austin, n.d.)

·    Removes the questioning of what is right or wrong

·    Forces morality and good nature of people in order to achieve a place among the gods/higher power

·    People need to think logically not emotionally

·    Easy to identify immoral people

·    Universalizable – “must be able to be stated so as to apply to everything without exception” (Thiroux, 2014)

·    Learn from other people’s mistakes

·    Uses the idea of intuitionism which states that people naturally know right from wrong and that we can naturally recover from mistakes. (Thiroux, 2014)

·    People have a duty to moral correct similar to DCT

Major Weaknesses ·    “Lack of proof that the support of such a being or beings is enough” (Thiroux, 2014)

·    People do not think outside of the box

·    Judgement towards those that are not religious which in turn breaks the religious ethic of “do not pass judgement”

·    Some logics can lead to immoral consequences. For example, logically a person has to keep a promise and that not breaking a promise could result in someone being seriously injured or even killed. (Thiroux, 2014)

·    No room for mercy. Kant believed in “eye for an eye”

·    Open to interpretation

·    Similar to Kantianism, the consequences of a duty could result in an immoral outcome

·    Intuitionism is viewed as a “hunch” (Thiroux, 2014)

·    Incomplete list of duties

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

 

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Virtue Theory

Virtue Theory
How is “Good” Determined ·    “Virtue ethics are character based ethics” (Thiroux, 2014)

·    Requires both moral judgement and understanding of law and order

Most Noted Philosopher(s) ·    Aristotle

·    Kongzi or “Confucius”

Major Strengths ·    “Acts that are objectively virtuous, without a knowledge that the acts are good and without actively or rationally choosing them ourselves” (Thiroux, 2014)

·    Utilizes the “mean” between excess and defect which keeps people content and/or peaceful – Moderation

·    Seeks to develop the moral person from within and from without

Major Weaknesses ·    Unknown if virtue is taught and learned or natural. Virtuous people are usually identified in older age instead of youth

·    Human flourishing and well-being are undefined

·    Relies on having someone to model after that is already virtuous. If there is no one to model after, then it is left to interpretation

 

 

 

References

Austin, M. W. (n.d.) Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved October 1, 2016, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/

Thiroux, J. P., Krasemann, K. W. (2014-12-01). Ethics: Theory and Practice (Updated Edition), 11th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://kaplan.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781323130162/ hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

 

 

HU245 Unit 2 Assignment

Ethical Theories Comparison Chart

Utilitarianism Ethical Egoism Ethics of Care Kantianism Prima Facie Duties Divine Command Theory Virtue Theory
How is “good” Determined An act is moral if it brings a desirable end, for the majority. An act that is in one’s own best interest is good. -An act is good if it can be made into a rule for all human beings Nothing is good in itself except good will, consequences should not affect morality -Adhering to the Prima Facie is our moral obligation, and is good. -An act is considered good if it is commanded by a “higher” power -By honoring virtuous habit, the right or good choice will be made.
Most Noted Philosopher(s) -Jeremy Bentham

-John Stuart Mill

-Ann Rand

-Jesse Kalin

-John Hospers

-Carol Gilligan – Immanuel Kant – Sir William David Ross -St Augustine

-John Calvin

-Duns Scotus

-Aristotle
Major Strengths -Attractive to the majority

-Fairness is easily determined because of its basic principles

-Ensures personal needs will be met

-Encourages individual freedom and responsibility

-Everyone deserves care mindset

-Recognizes weakness in moral theories

-Provides a basis for human rights

-Aims to treat everyone fairly

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

 

-Provides guidelines to morality

-Easy to follow rules

-Commands are given by the ultimate authority, making the reliable and trustworthy

-Human begins can follow commands without fear of consequences or anything else

– Following virtues makes for better individuals

-motivates personal relationship and the sense of community

Major Weaknesses -Results depend on the prediction of an action

-Impersonal and overlooks the individual to serve the “greater good”.

-Inconsistent

-requires everyone to participate in its philosophy to be successful

-Disrupts the philosophy of gender equality

-Women’s values are held higher then men’s values

– “Eye for an eye” mindset does not allow for mercy

-Universal rules do not help when each situation is different

-Hard to determine which obligations take precedence -Lacks rational foundation of the existence of said “higher” powers

-Can these “higher” powers be proven trustworthy?

– Lacks a distinction between was acts are morally acceptable and which acts are not.

-It is limited to helping individuals and not the population.

hu245 unit 2 assignment ethical theories comparison chart examples

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